Calling cards Germany

Calling cards Germany - Berlin

Rates from Germany - Cologne to USA

Calling from Germany - Dusseldorf

Calling from Germany - Frankfurt

Calling from Germany - Hamburg

Calling Rates from Germany - Hanover

Calling from Germany - Munich

Calling Rates from Germany - Stuttgart


Tuesday, February 27, 2007


While the U.S. Army operates few fixed-wing aircraft, it operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache light attack helicopter, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior scout/armed-scout helicopter, the UH-60 Black Hawk light-utility/medium under-slung lift helicopter, and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter.[35] In addition, the Army's 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment operates the MH-6/AH-6 light assault/attack helicopter, as well as highly-modified versions of the Black Hawk and Chinook.

Army components

During The First World War, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict. It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps, and the State Militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.

In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight the Second World War. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard, and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the Draft.

Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve, and the United States National Guard. Prior to 1903 members of the National Guard were considered state soldiers unless federalized by the President. Since the Militia Act of 1903 all National Guard soldiers have held dual status: as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state and as a reserve of the US Army under the authority of the President.

Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in US military operations. Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Various State Defense Forces also exist, sometimes known as State Militias, which are sponsored by individual state governments and serve as an auxiliary to the National Guard. Except in times of extreme national emergency, such as a mainland invasion of the United States, State Militias are operated independently from the U.S. Army and are seen as state government agencies rather than a component of the military.

Although the present-day Army exists as an all volunteer force, augmented by Reserve and National Guard forces, measures exist for emergency expansion in the event of a catastrophic occurrence, such as a large scale attack against the US or the outbreak of a major global war. The current "call-up" order of the United States Army is as follows:

US Army Beret FlashRegular Army volunteer force
Army Reserve total mobilization
Full scale activation of all National Guard forces
Recall of all retired personnel fit for military duty
Re-establishment of the draft and creation of a conscript force within the Regular Army
Recall of previously discharged officers and enlisted who were separated under honorable conditions
Activation of the State Defense Forces/State Militias
Full scale mobilization of the unorganized U.S. militia
The final stage of Army mobilization, known as "activation of the unorganized militia" would effectively place all able bodied males in the service of the U.S. Army. The last time an approximation of this occurred was during the American Civil War when the Confederate States of America activated the "Home Guard" in 1865, drafting all males, regardless of age or health, into the Confederate Army.

United States Army

The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. As of 2005, it consisted of 488,579 soldiers on active duty, 333,177 in the Army National Guard (ARNG) and 189,005 in the United States Army Reserve (USAR)[1].

The modern United States Army has its roots in the Continental Army which was formed on June 14, 1775, before the establishment of the United States, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War. Congress created the United States Army on June 3, 1784 after the end of the American Revolutionary War, to replace the disbanded Continental Army. However, the US Army considers itself to be an evolution of the Continental Army, and thus dates its inception from the origins of the Continental Army[2].

The Army is managed by the Department of the Army which is headed by the Secretary of the Army who heads administrative affairs. The highest ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Army.

Tuesday, January 02, 2007


From 2003 onwards, a member of the US Army is officially called a Soldier. This was the result of General Schumacher, then Army Chief of Staff, ordering all official Army publications to capitalize the word Soldier.[3]

The US Army is made up of three components: the active (Regular Army) component; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month, known as Battle Assembly, and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32 of the US Code. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the US Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state's governors. However the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes; see Perpich v. Department of Defense,496 U.S. 334 (1990).

The US Army is led by a civilian Secretary of the Army, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, and serves as civilian oversight for the US Army Chief of Staff, who is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the service chiefs from each service who, as a body, under the guidance of the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff advise the President and Secretary of Defense on military matters.

In 1986, the Goldwater-Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the President of the United States to the Secretary of Defense directly to the Unified Combatant Commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility. Thus, the Chief of Staff of each service only has the responsibility to organize, train and equip their respective service component. The services provide trained forces to the Combatant Commanders for use as they see fit.

The Army is currently undergoing a period of transformation, which is expected to be finished in 2009. When it is finished, there will be five geographical commands which will line up with the five geographical Unified Combatant Commands (COCOM).

United States Army Central home-headquartered at Fort McPherson, Georgia
United States Army North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
United States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
United States Army Europe headquartered at Campbell Barracks, Heidelberg, Germany
United States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter, Hawaii
Each command will receive a numbered army as operational command, except in the case of US Army Pacific, which will not receive one but will have a numbered army for US Army forces in South Korea.

As part of the same transformation plan, the US Army is currently undergoing a transition from being a division-based force to a brigade-based force. When finished, the active army will have increased its number of combat brigades from 33 to 42, and increases of a similar scale will have taken place in the National Guard and Reserve forces. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional HQs will be able to command any brigades, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same, and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. There will be three major types of ground combat brigades:

Heavy brigades will have about 3,700 troops and be equivalent to a mechanized infantry brigade.
Infantry brigades will have around 3,300 troops and be equivalent to a light infantry or airborne brigade.
Stryker brigades will have around 3,900 troops and be based around the Stryker family of vehicles.
In addition, there will be combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include Aviation brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, and Fires (artillery) brigades. Combat Service support brigades include Sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.

Main article: Transformation of the United States Army
The U.S. Army is divided into the following components, from largest to smallest:

U.S. Generals, World War II, Europe:
back row (left to right): Stearley, Vandenberg, Smith, Weyland, Nugent;
front row: Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges, Gerow.
HHC, US Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
U.S. 1st ArmyField Army: Usually commanded by a General (GEN; note that abbreviations of military rank within the U.S. Army are given in all capital letters without a period or other punctuation).
Corps: Formerly consisted of two or more divisions and organic support brigades. Now is an "operational unit of employment," that may command a flexible number of modular units. The commander is most often a Lieutenant General (LTG).
Division: Usually commanded by a Major General (MG). Formerly consisted of three maneuver brigades, a division artillery, a division support command, an aviation brigade, an engineer brigade (in heavy divisions only) and other support assets. Until the Brigade Combat Team program was developed, the division was the smallest self-sufficient level of organization in the US Army. Current divisions are "tactical units of employment," and may command a flexible number of modular units, but generally will include four brigade combat teams and a combat aviation brigade.
Brigade (or group): Composed of typically three or more battalions, and commanded by a Colonel (COL) or occasionally a Brigadier General (BG). (See Regiment for combat arms units.) Since the Brigade Unit of Action program was initiated, maneuver brigades have transformed into brigade combat teams, generally consisting of two maneuver battalions, a cavalry squadron, a fires battalion, a special troops battalion (with engineers, signals, and military intelligence), and a support battalion. Stryker Brigade Combat Teams have a somewhat larger structure.
Battalion (or Squadron): A Battalion usually consists of two to six companies and roughly 300 to 1000 soldiers. Most units are organized into battalions. Cavalry units are formed into squadrons. A battalion-sized unit is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel (LTC), supported by a Command Sergeant Major/E-9 (CSM). This unit consists of a Battalion Commander (CO, LTC), a Battalion Executive Officer (XO, MAJ), a Command Sergeant Major (CSM) and headquarters, and three to five Companies.
Company (or artillery battery/cavalry troop): A company usually consists of three to four platoons and roughly 100 to 130 soldiers. Artillery units are formed into batteries. Cavalry units are formed into troops. A company-sized unit is usually led by a Company Commander usually the rank of Captain/O-3 (CPT) supported by a First Sergeant/E-8 (1SG). This unit consists of a Company Commander (CO, CPT), a Company Executive Officer (XO, 1LT), A First Sergeant (1SG) and a headquarters, and two or more Platoons.
Platoon: Usually led by a lieutenant supported by a Sergeant First Class/E-7 (SFC). This unit consists of a Platoon Leader (2LT/1LT), a Platoon Sergeant (SFC), a Radio-Telephone Operator (Usually a PFC or SPC) and two or more Squad Leaders (any NCO).
Section: Usually directed by Staff Sergeants/E-6 (SSG) who supply guidance for junior NCO Squad leaders. Often used in conjunction with platoons at the company level.
Squad: Squad leaders are usually Staff Sergeants/E-6 (SSG)and can be Sergeants/E-5 (SGT). This unit consists of eight to ten soldiers.
Fire team: In the Infantry it usually consists of four soldiers: a fire team leader, a grenadier, an automatic rifleman, and a rifleman. Fire team leaders are usually Sergeants/E-5 (SGT), but sometimes Corporals/E-4 (CPL).

Wednesday, December 27, 2006


The first US Army, the Continental Army, was formed in 1775 by the Continental Congress as a unified army for the states to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. George Washington, although not a great tactician, made use of the Fabian strategy and used hit-and-run tactics, hitting where the enemy was weakest, to wear the British, and their allies, the Hessian mercenaries, down. With a decisive victory at Yorktown, and the help of France, the Continental Army prevailed against the British, and with the Treaty of Paris, the independence of the United States was acknowledged.

After the war, though, the Continental Army was quickly disbanded as part of the Americans' distrust of standing armies, and amateur state militias became the new nation's sole ground army. However, because of continuing conflict with American Indians, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The first of these, the Legion of the United States, was established in 1791.

1800sThe War of 1812 (1812-1815), the second and last American war against the British, was mostly a series of defeats for the US Army. An invasion of Canada completely failed, and US troops were unable to stop the British from burning the new capital of Washington, D.C.. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, though, Andrew Jackson defeated the British invasion of New Orleans. However this had little effect, as per the treaty both sides returned to the status quo.

Between 1815 and 1860, a spirit of Manifest Destiny struck the United States, and as settlers moved west the US Army engaged in a long series of skirmishes and battles with American Indians the colonists uprooted. The US Army also fought the short Mexican–American War, which was a victory for the United States and resulted in the new territories of California,Nevada, Utah, Colorado,Arizona,Wyoming and New Mexico.

The Civil War (1861-1865) would result in the most costly war for the United States. After most states in the South seceded to form the Confederate States of America, CSA troops opened fire on the US fort Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, starting the war. For the first two years Confederate forces solidly defeated the US Army, but after the decisive Battle of Gettysburg, Union troops pushed into Confederate territory and won the war in April 1865.

Following the Civil War, the US Army fought a long battle with American Indians, who resisted US expansion into the center of the continent. But by the 1890s the US saw itself as a potential player internationally. US victories in the Spanish-American War (1898) and the more unknown and controversial Philippine-American War (1898-1913), as well as US intervention in Latin America and the Boxer Rebellion, gained America more land and international prestige.

The US joined World War I (1914-1918) in 1917 on the side of Britain and France. Millions of US troops were sent to the front and were instrumental in the push that finally broke through the German lines. With victory on November 11, 1918, the Army once again decreased its forces.

World War II started in 1939 but the United States did not join until 1941 following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. On the European front, US Army troops made up large portions of the forces that captured North Africa, Sicily, and Italy, and on D-Day and the resulting liberation of Europe and defeat of Germany, the millions of US Army troops played a central role. In the Pacific, millions of Army soldiers participated in the "island hopping" campaign that wrested the Pacific islands from Japanese control. Following Axis Powers surrender in August/September 1945, US troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two nations.

However, this set the stage for the west-east confrontation known as the Cold War (late 1940s to late 1980s/early 1990s). Millions of US troops were deployed to West Germany and the rest of Europe in anticipation of Soviet attack, but the invasion never came. Instead, US troops and their allies fought non-Soviet communist forces in Korea and Vietnam, as part of the domino theory.

The Korean War started in 1950. Hundreds of thousands of US troops, under a UN umbrella, were sent to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea, and later, to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats on the part of both sides, as well as Chinese involvement, a cease-fire returned the peninsula to the status quo in 1953.

The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point in morale in the Army's record. While US troops had been in the Republic of Vietnam since 1959, they did not come into the country in large numbers until 1965, to fight the communist North Vietnam. The guerrilla war tactics of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army proved difficult to adapt to, and the US military left Vietnam in 1973. Two years later, the country was unified under a communist government.

The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The US Army converted to an all-volunteer force with more emphasis on training and technology. The Goldwater-Nichols Act was passed in 1986, creating the Unified Combatant Commands. In addition, the Army had a small participation in the successful invasions of Panama (Operation Just Cause) and Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury).

By 1991 Germany was reunited and the Soviet Union was near collapse, and the Cold War was effectively over. Then Iraq invaded its tiny neighbor Kuwait, and the international community deployed hundreds of thousands of troops, mostly US Army formations, to take back the nation. The war was a major victory for the Army, as the US mechanized formations obliterated the Iraqi Army units, taking back the country in only a few days, and proving the effectiveness of the new untried all-volunteer force.

After the Gulf War, the Army did not experience major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990's, but it did participate in numerous peace keeping activities such as the UN peacekeeping mission in Somalia in 1993, where the abortive Operation Gothic Serpent action led to the total withdrawal of both US and UN forces, and also contributed troops to a NATO peacekeeping force in former Yugoslavia in the middle of the decade.

21st century
After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror, US and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in 2001, replacing the Taliban government. Much more controversially, the US and other nations invaded Iraq in 2003 and defeated the Saddam Hussein dictatorship. In the following years the war has arguably bogged down, with debatably large numbers of suicide bomb attacks, and the country is far from stable. However, some milestones have been reached, such as the capture of Saddam Hussein and the holding of elections which have had varying degrees of effective democracy throughout the regions of Iraq.

Values. In the mid- to late 1990's, the Army officially adopted what have come to be known as "The 7 Army Values." The Army began to instill the values into Soldiers. The seven army values are as follows:

Loyalty - Bear true faith and allegiance to the U.S. Constitution, the Army, your unit, and other Soldiers.
Duty - Fulfill your obligations, even if it calls for sacrifice.
Respect - Treat people as they should be treated.
Selfless Service - Sacrifice your welfare, and your life if need be, for that of the Republic, the Army, and your subordinates.
Honor - Live up to the code of a U.S. Army Soldier.
Integrity - Do what's right, legally and morally.
Personal Courage - Face danger, adversity or death with steadfast bravery.
The values were arranged to form the acronym LDRSHIP (leadership).

Friday, November 17, 2006


Currently, the Army is in the process of phasing out the separate woodland and 3-color desert Battle Dress Uniform (BDUs) and replacing them with the single Army Combat Uniform (ACU), which features a digital camouflage pattern similar to the U.S. Marine Corps MARPAT and is designed for use in woodland, desert, and urban environments. The standard garrison service uniform is known as "Army Greens" or "Class As" and has been worn by all officers and enlisted personnel since its introduction in 1956 when it replaced earlier Olive Drab (OD) and khaki (and tan worsted or TW) uniforms worn between the 1890s and 1985. The "Army Blue" uniform, dating back to the mid-19th century, is currently the Army's formal dress uniform, but in 2009 it will replace the Army Green and the Army White uniforms (a uniform similar to the Army Green uniform, but worn in tropical postings) and will become the "new" Army Service Uniform, which will function as both a garrison uniform (when worn with a gray shirt and necktie) and a dress uniform (when worn with a white shirt either a necktie for parades or a bow tie for "after six" or "black tie" events). The beret, adopted Army-wide in 2001, will continue to be worn with the new ACU for garrison duty and with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions.

Tuesday, October 24, 2006

Individual weapons

The primary individual weapons of the Army are the M16A2/A4 assault rifle and its compact variant, the M4 carbine. Optionally, the M9 bayonet can be attached to either variant for close-quarters fighting. The 40 mm M203 grenade launcher can also be attached for additional firepower. Some soldiers whose duties require a more compact weapon, such as combat vehicle crew members, staff officers, and military police, are issued a sidearm in lieu of (or in addition to) a rifle. The most common sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol which is issued to the majority of combat and support units. Other, less commonly issued sidearms include the M11, used by Special Agents of the CID, and the MK23, used by some Army Special Forces units.

In addition to these basic rifles and sidearms, many combat units' arsenals are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) to provide suppressive fire at the fire-team level, the M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun for door breaching and close-quarters combat, the M14 Rifle for long-range marksmen, and the M107 or the M24 Sniper Weapon System for snipers. Hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade, are also commonly used by combat troops

Sunday, August 27, 2006

Crew-served weapon systems

The Army employs various crew-served weapons (so named because they are operated by two or more soldiers in order to transport items such as spare barrels, tripods, base plates, and extra ammunition) to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons. The M240 is the Army's standard medium general-purpose machine gun. The M240 (left-hand feed) and M240C (right-hand feed) variants are used as coaxial machine guns on the M1 Abrams tank and the M2 Bradley IFV, respectively; the M240B is the infantry variant and can be fired from a bipod or tripod if carried by hand, or employed from a pintle mount atop a vehicle. The M2 .50-caliber machine gun has been in use since 1932 in a variety of roles from infantry support to air defense. The M2 is also the primary weapon on most Stryker ACV variants and the secondary weapon system on the M1 Abrams tank. The MK 19 40mm grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units, such as Stryker Brigades, HMMWV-mounted cavalry scouts, and Military Police. It is commonly employed in a complementary role to the M2.

The Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level. At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars. The largest mortar in the Army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized battalions, Stryker units, and cavalry troops because its size and weight require it to be transported in a tracked carrier or towed behind a truck.


Main article: List of armoured fighting vehicles by country#United States
The U.S. Army was the first in the world to achieve 100% automotive mobility, and spends a sizable portion of its military budget to maintain a diverse inventory of vehicles. The U.S. Army maintains the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world.

The Army's most common vehicle is the HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle), which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform, and ambulance, among many other roles.[23] The M1A2 Abrams is the Army's primary main battle tank, while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle.[25] Other vehicles include the M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicle, the Stryker,[26] and the M113 armored personnel carrier.

Let me tell you about myself.

I am a retired US Army Sergeant First Class (E7). I served as a Military Intelligence Soldier. My Military career included assignments at US Army Field Station Augsburg, Germany, at a place called Eckstein, on the West German/Czechoslovakian Border ; at Fort Hood, Texas, Frankfurt, Hoechst, Germany; at Goodfellow Airforce Base, San Angelo, Texas; and at Fulda, GermanyMy military jobs include Squad Leader, Instructor, and Platoon Sergeant. I was the Platoon Sergeant for the Trailblazer and Elint Platoon, 533rd Combat Electronic Warfare and Intelligence (CEWI) Battalion. After a four year position as an Instructor at Goodfellow Airforce Base I went to Fulda Germany where I served half of my tour as the Platoon Sergeant of an Electronic Warfare Platoon and I spent the other half of my tour as the Platoon Seargent of an Electronic Warfare Helicopter Platoon. That was my most exciting job, I became Air Assault qualified and served as a cadre member of the Blackhorse Air Assault School. I loved to repel from the helicopters. I taught combat operations at the Air Assault School.
The units I served in were the 3rd Battalion, Field Station Augsburg; the 375th ASA Company, 3rd US Corp; the 856th ASA Company, 3rd Armored Division; US Army Training Detachment, Goodfellow Airforce Base; 511th MI Company, 11 Armored Cavalry Regiment, and S Troop, 4th Squadron, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment.
I loved my career in the US Army and when I hear a helicopter flying over head I often think back to my time in Fulda Germany.
I began using computers in 1977 when the US Army selected me to participate in an evaluation of a new Radio Direction Find System. I purchased my first computer, a Commodore 64 four years later. This computer was replaced by a Commodore 128 two years later.
After retiring from the US Army, I studied Electrical Engineering at the University of Texas at San Antonio. I purchased a 286 computer so I would not have to spend hours waiting for a free computer in the computer lab. I purchased a 486 computer, when I had finished my pre-engineering requirements and needed more power so I could remotely connect to the University's computers. My latest computer projects include two Athlon 1.4 GHz computers and a dual Tualatin 1.2 GHz processor server with raid 0,1 which I built for a friend starting his own business. I have built and upgraded many computers for my friends and family. Of course my own computers are all built by me. I love to build computers.
My past hobbies included motorcycling, model air planes, and fishing. My current hobbies are web site design, operating systems, building computers and helping people with computer problems.
I have been working in the field of computer technical support for since 1991. My experience includes hardware and software support, Novell 3.11 Network Administrator, Help Desk telephone support, Desktop computer support, Internet Service Provider Systems Administrator, Y2K project for the State of CT, Systems Engineer/Windows NT Domains Administrator for an insurance company in NYC, Desktop Support for Otis Engineering, and Deployment Manager for two projects with Compaq. I have been using the Internet for over 16 years.
My experience in education includes 4 years as an Army instructor (I even earned the Airforce Master Instructor Award); three years as a High Schools Physics and Chemistry Teacher at Saint Gerard Catholic High School, where I also served as the computer technician and Science Department Head; three years as assistant teacher while I was the Systems Engineer for the Ben Bronz Academy.

Internet Explorer History

In the early 90s—the dawn of history as far as the World Wide Web is concerned—relatively few users were communicating across this global network. They used an assortment of shareware and other software for Microsoft Windows® operating system.
In 1995, Microsoft hosted an Internet Strategy Day and announced its commitment to adding Internet capabilities to all its products. In fulfillment of that announcement, Microsoft Internet Explorer arrived as both a graphical Web browser and the name for a set of technologies.
1995: Internet Explorer 1.0
In July 1995, Microsoft released the Windows 95 operating system, which included built-in support for dial-up networking and TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), key technologies for connecting to the Internet. In response to the growing public interest in the Internet, Microsoft created an add-on to the operating system called Internet Explorer 1.0. When Windows 95 with Internet Explorer debuted, the Internet became much more accessible for many more people.
Internet Explorer technology originally shipped as the Internet Jumpstart Kit in Microsoft Plus! For Windows 95. Internet Explorer replaced the need for cumbersome, manual installation steps required by many of the existing shareware browsers.
1995: Internet Explorer 2.0
In November 1995, Microsoft released its first cross-platform browser, Internet Explorer 2.0, which supported both Macintosh and 32-bit Windows users.
With Internet Explorer 2.0 came a new set of fledgling Internet technologies that offered Web developers and designers the power to design secure, media-rich Web sites with tracking capabilities. Internet Explorer 2.0 technology introduced Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol as well as support for HTTP cookies, Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), and Internet newsgroups.
1996: Internet Explorer 3.0
In August 1996, Microsoft released its completely rebuilt Internet Explorer technology, which included features that were revolutionary for the time. Designed for Windows 95, Internet Explorer 3.0 technology offered useful components that immediately appealed to users, including Internet Mail and News 1.0 and Windows Address Book. Later, Microsoft NetMeeting® and Windows Media Player were added. Now the Internet Explorer browser could display GIF and JPG files, play MIDI sound files, and play streaming audio files without the assistance of helper applications.
For Web developers, Internet Explorer 3.0 technology delivered a flexible programming model with a choice of scripting languages. Web designers also received more predictable results, thanks to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Moreoever, Internet Explorer 3.0 was designed to allow Web developers to extend it easily at a time when Internet standards were quickly evolving.
1997: Internet Explorer 4.0
Designed for Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT®, Internet Explorer 4.0 technology was a significant move forward. For Web developers, the addition of Dynamic HTML (DHTML) heralded the next step in Web design. DHTML gave Web developers more control over content and style and created opportunities that previously had been possible only with software applications.
Suddenly Web pages became much more interactive—users could expand menus with a click or drag images and objects around. The Web started to look more like the applications and games that people were accustomed to and less like a static series of pages.
With Internet Explorer 4.0, Microsoft Outlook® Express 4.0 was also installed for the first time as an upgrade to Internet Mail and News. This built-in component improved the way users sent, received, and organized their e-mail and address book.
1998: Internet Explorer 5.0
With the September 1998 release of Internet Explorer 5.0 technology, developers gained the ability to design richer Web applications. DHTML capabilities were expanded, giving Web developers more flexibility and power to create interactive Web sites.
Now personalization became a key focus as Web applications based on DHTML emerged. Users encountered rich applications on the Web—for example, an expense report could automatically configure itself based on a user's personalized settings. With expanded programming capabilities such as these, Internet Explorer 5.0 technologies helped usher in a new era of e-commerce.

2001: Internet Explorer 6
Internet Explorer 6 technology was released with Windows XP in 2001 as a more private, reliable, and flexible technology than previous versions. Because privacy and security had become customer priorities, Microsoft implemented tools that support Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P), a technology under development by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
From the home user simply browsing content on the Web, to the IT administrator deploying and maintaining a rich set of Windows Internet technologies, to the Web developer creating rich Web content, Internet Explorer 6 technologies provide the freedom to experience the best of the Internet.

Thursday, July 27, 2006


The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M190A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer and the M270A1 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS),] both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units. Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1 and the 155 mm M777 (which will replace the M198).